The origins of Córdoba are lost in time. Its location near the river and the richness of the lands of the countryside made it an ideal place for the first prehistoric occupations. But it is not until the Late Bronze Age (10th and 6th centuries BC) when the first settlement proper is created . With the arrival of Phoenicians and Greeks to the peninsula, the city is reaffirmed as an important mining and commercial center thanks to the navigability of the Guadalquivir. This fact favored the relations and the artistic and commercial diffusion, integrating to this locality with the main cities of the moment.
The taking of Cordoba by the Romans in the 2nd century BC fosters one of the moments of greatest splendor in its history along with that of the Muslim caliphate . It was in the middle of the second century when a general named Claudio Marcelo , founded Corduba , being erected from this very moment as the capital ofthe Hispania Ulterior. Prosperous years were those of the Republic, truncated by the cesariana victory in the battle of Munda , when taking the city divided by the pompeyano side. After the first years of imperial decline, César Augusto restored the deserved status of this area by reserving his lands to the best veterans of his troops, giving him the title of Colonia Patricia . Córdoba lives, under Roman rule, an intense monumentality and enrichment of its public infrastructure. No doubt a great commercial and cultural movement was maintained, proof of this are the two forums, the colonial and the provincial, which hosted the city. There are large buildings, such as the recently discovered maximum amphitheater, grandiose temples, in the case of Claudio Marcelo street, and the streets are adorned with magnificent sculptures.
The transfer of the capital to Hispalis and the increasingly imminent disintegration of the empire, add to the locality in a cultural and economic stagnation that will prevail throughout the period of Visigothic occupation.
In June of 1236 , the troops of Fernando III the Saint arrive at the gates of the city. The taking does not take long, producing the entry of the Christian army on the 26th of the same month. The Christian repopulation of Cordoba began then, focusing on the Muslim suburbs , especially in the area ofthe Ajerquía . WithFernando III projects 14 churches, seven in the medina, now Villa, and seven in the Ajerquía, calling themselves Fernandinas Churches in honor to the king.
The fourteenth century will bring hard years for the Cordovan population. Between 1366 and 1369 takes place the civil war that confronts the supporters of Pedro I the Cruel and those of his bastard brother Enrique de Trastámara. In 1349 Córdoba succumbs tothe Black Death, fact that will be repeated fifteen years later. The immense death rates, the lack of food and money subject the city to a great economic and social crisis.
A century later, with the concentration of troops of the Catholic Monarchs in Cordoba to give the final blow to the kingdom of Granada, will see a ray of hope in the recovery of the town. Here Cristóbal Colón is received to present his trip project to the Indies. Once the last Muslim stronghold has been taken, Isabel and Fernando dictate the expulsion of the Jewish inhabitants from all the Christian territory, which will be the final blow for the depleted economy of Cordoba.
Due to its exceptional geographical location, Córdoba is well connected not only with Andalusia, but also with the rest of Spain, through the radial axis that is the A-4. Main accesses:
- From Madrid : You can reach the city through the Autovía del Sur A-4. Approximate duration of the trip: 3 hours 30 minutes
- From Seville : Also through the Autovía del Sur A-4. Approximate duration of the journey: 1 hour
- From Málaga : Córdoba-Málaga motorway A-45. Approximate duration of the trip: 1 hour and 30 minutes
- From Valencia: A-3 motorway and connection with A-4 through the A-43. Approximate duration of the trip: 5 hours
- From Murcia and Levante : A-7 motorway and connection with A-45 through the A-92N and the A-92
- From Portugal and Extremadura : The province is accessed through its northern area through the National 432
- From the Portuguese Algarve and Huelva : Taking the V-Centennial Highway A-49 until you reach Seville and connect with the Autovía del Sur A-4
- From Gibraltar and Cádiz : Via the Autovía del Sur A-4 towards Madrid
For bus information, contact the Córdoba Bus Station: www.estacionautobusescordoba.es – Telephone +34 957 40 40 40.
Something similar happens with the railroad, since Córdoba is the fork of the line that connects Madrid with Málaga, Sevilla, Cádiz and Huelva.
In addition, communication between Cordoba and Seville, Malaga, Madrid, Valencia, Alicante and Barcelona is especially comfortable through the High Speed Train (AVE) . Duration of the trips:
-Sevilla-Córdoba: 40 minutes
-Málaga-Córdoba: 50 minutes
– Madrid-Córdoba: 1 hour and 40 minutes
-Valencia-Córdoba: 3 hours
-Alicante-Córdoba: 4 hours
-Barcelona-Córdoba: 4 hours and 35 minutes
Regarding air transport, Córdoba has an operating airport for aircraft with up to 80 jet or propeller seats. Currently does not host regular passenger flights, use that is expected to be given in the future.
The nearest airports are those of Seville, Malaga and Madrid.
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